Counter Assault was produced from a research study at the University of Montana that included bear biologists and then was extensively field tested by bear management specialists. During the development stages, Counter Assault carefully listened to wildlife management specialists, outfitters and individuals that were involved in bear encounters. During the original testing, guidelines were established based on their experience with black and grizzly bears. Counter Assault's performance specifications were also based on spraying extremely agitated bears that were removed from our parks and forests for being too aggressive. Counter Assault has continued to monitor the suggestions and recommendations from bear experts who work for our state and federal agencies and have reaffirmed these recommendations over the past 18 years.